Happy New Year

Sob2013

   I look forward to helping you more

improve your Technical English this year.

 

Galina Vitkova

The ViCTE Newsletter

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 41                                                                                 October 2012

Composed by Galina Vitkova

Editorial

Dear friend of Technical English!

For many English learners the tenses are especially challenging because their native language does not focus on the time aspect of tenses that is so prevalent in English.

Drop a look again at the table reviewing all English tenses, e.g. in Simple tenses – ViCTE Newsletter Number 36 / January 2012 or Conjugate verbs, with paying the special attention to Simple tenses.

Let us just remind:

Simple Present Tense is used to describe what we do every day, i.e. permanent or long-lasting situations, regular habits and daily routines, facts, feelings etc. (see more details and examples in reading comprehension about daily routines). Be sure about your remembering the material and check your understanding with this short quiz. Choose the correct word or phrase to complete the question. There are 10 questions to this quiz. Try to use only 30 seconds per question.

Past Simple Tense. This tense is used when something begins and ends in the past. The Past Tense Regular Verb Pronunciation is reminded in the past forms of regular verbs. Irregular verbs, which should be learned by heart, are provided in an irregular verb sheet. Check your understanding the tense with the short quiz. There are 10 questions to this quiz, too.

Remember that in the Simple Present and Simple Past auxiliary verbs are used in the question and negative, but not in the positive form.

Future There are two basic future tenses used in English (and in Technical English naturally, too) to describe things that happen in the future: the future with ‘will’ and the future with ‘going to’. The Simple Future Tense with ‘will’, which was discussed in Refine your Future Simple – ViCTE Newsletter Number 40 / July 2012, is used for predictions and for promises or to talk about an event in the future that you have just decided to do. The future with ‘going to’ is used to express events you have already planned in the future and your intentions for the future. We have not discussed this case yet, but we are going to do that in the near future.

Future.Tense

Future.Tense (Photo credit: Lay-Luh)

When making decision about a proper tense to use,  you may drop a look at Conjugate verbs again.

The following below exercises 1 and 2 are based on the technical text Energy policy of Germany after Fukushima at the blog Why Technical English.

In Exercise 1your task is to decide which simple tense is appropriate for each sentence and put an infinitive given at the end of the sentence into a correct tense. Exercise 2is about word order in the positive (or affirmative) form of simple tenses. Provided words should be ordered in compliance with the rule SVOMPT (see, for instance, Number 15 – SVOMPT (Word Order) / November 2009 ).

When doing exercises, check your solutions in Keys to Newsletters from Number 19. Technical terms and expressions, possible abbreviations connected with the mentioned text could be found in the enclosed technical English vocabulary, i.e. TrainTE Vocabulary.

PS: Before doing exercises read loudly the technical text Energy policy of Germany after Fukushima at least twice. It will definitely contribute to your better English understanding and pronunciation.

Technical English Exercises

Verbs Territory

Verbs Territory (Photo credit: Ecstatic Mark)

Exercise 1  Put infinitives in brackets into an appropriate Simple tense:

  1. Legislative changes following the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan in 2011 °°° the nuclear extension. (TO STOP)
  2. The German Energy Agency °°° a new study examining the consequences of the German energy policy shift. (TO PRESENT)
  3. The Agency °°° that electricity prices °°° until 2050 and conventional power plants °°° needed to a large extent to ensure the security of supply and balance. (TO PREDICT, TO RISE, TO BE)
  4. When preparing the study the Agency °°° with the Aachen University. (TO COOPERATE)
  5. By 2050 efficient gas and coal-fired power plants °°° roughly 60% of secure electricity supply, whereas renewable power plants deliver 24%. (TO PROVIDE, TO DELIVER)
  6. As of 2020 it °°° to situations in which the renewable power production exceeds the demand. (TO COME)
  7. The Agency °°° a European capacity market to encourage and stimulate investments in power plants that °°° secure capacities. (TO PROPOSE, TO PROVIDE)

Exercise 2   Make sentences putting words below into the correct word order:

  1. ambitious – Before – targets – had – Germany – energy – Fukushima-.
  2. the – an – Energy Concept 2010 – times of – approved – nuclear – plants – power – extension of – operating – German – the 17 – The -.
  3. The – and – key – comprised – climate – energy – elements – November 2010 – four – of 26 -.
  4. present – the – in – amounts – 29 GW – of PV – total – At – to – Germany – capacity – plants – installed -..
  5. study – capacity – installed – In – Germany – amount – to – total – according to the – 240 GW in – power – in – the – will – 2050 -,
  6. 37% – capacity – will – 2010 – compared – with – The – by – conventional – decrease – only -.
  7. complete – EEG – Agency – demands – The – the – of – overhaul – a -.
  8. German – fixed – EEG – granting – The – the – feed-in – by – tariffs – grids – into the – renewable – energy – promotes – input of -.

In conclusion I advise you to regularly pay attention to improving your pronunciation. Visit Tips for Improving Your Pronunciation, practise pronunciation and your English will be just brighter.

G O O D    L U C K!

Dear visitor,

 Subscribe to the ViCTE Newsletter!

You will regularly receive actual comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering.

It encourages you to improve your professional English and helps become excellent at technical communication.

Just click Entries RSS     OR     Подписаться письмом 

The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 40                                                                                 July 2012

Composed by Galina Vitkova

 

Editorial

 
Even if the Future Simple tense is not a tense that is so widely applied in technical texts, it is worth revising and practicing (see again e.g. the review Simple tenses – ViCTE Newsletter Number 36 / January 2012 or Conjugate verbs).

The Future Simple tense is used to indicate the future. It is composed of two parts: will/shall + infinitive without ‘to’ (sometimes called base verb). Will and shall are often contracted to ‘ll.

Just remind ‘will’ is used with all persons. ‘Shall’ can be used instead of ‘will’ with I/we. In modern English, particularly in American English, ‘shall’ with a future reference is rarely used.

‘Shall’ is used to make offers, ask for advices or suggestions, etc. (mainly in British English)
For instance:  Shall I close the door?    Shall I study English?

‘Shall’ is also used as an imperative in formal or legal written statements:
For instance: The Chairman shall be present at the Company’s general meetings.   The accused shall be present during the trial.

Following the topic the Newsletter contains two exercises and recommended tests. Exercise 1 represents the technical text in which the author predicts the future of social media. Your task is to choose a proper combination of a verb with context from the given box and put it in a right place. The combination may be complicates a little your task, but it weighs in learning new words. If you like to work more on your vocabulary, study comprehensive advices in How To Increase Your Vocabulary (superdoodadsblog.wordpress.com).

In Exercise 2 you should place verbs from the brackets at the end of each sentence in a proper gap. Do not forget to use a correct form of a verb. 

Keys to exercises (but do the exercises firstly!) you find as always in Keys to Internet English.

Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e. Internet English VocabularyD o   y o u r   b e s t !

Technical English Exercises

 

Exercise 1   Put appropriate expressionss from the box below into gaps:

Social Media examiner

By Carla Swing @CarlaDewing

http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/author/carla-dewing/

we will see    –    will have to transcend    –    there will be urgency    –    as it crosses    –         will be required to have    –    become more complex    –    will become integral    –    how will he or she be able    –    their job becomes    –    when they arise    –    it will be short-sighted

 

In 2011 we saw a trend toward multifaceted social marketing positions, or people within companies who are expected to have “layered” expertise in social media. Content marketers ▪▪▪ (1) ▪▪▪ basic sales, and work within the rapidly expanding technology field.

In 2012 ▪▪▪ (2) ▪▪▪ these positions solidified, as social marketers working online branch out and become involved in the coding/tech world as well.

These positions ▪▪▪ (3) ▪▪▪ to any social marketing campaign, as singular jobs ▪▪▪ (4) ▪▪▪ transforming people into media specialists.

One individual must be able to blog, market, work on a multitude of platforms, work within the tech sphere and perform high-level SEO tasks. Otherwise, ▪▪▪ (5) ▪▪▪ to spot social opportunities ▪▪▪ (6) ▪▪▪?

These media specialists ▪▪▪ (7) ▪▪▪ a 360-degree view of social media, as ▪▪▪ (8) ▪▪▪ more demanding and competitive. I also feel that ▪▪▪ (9) ▪▪▪ to perfect mobile technology and marketing, ▪▪▪ (10) ▪▪▪ from the virtual realm into the physical world.

In 2012, it ▪▪▪ (11▪▪▪ for businesses to overlook the benefits of having a media specialist on their team! 

Exercise 2   Use a proper Future Simple form of a main verb in brackets and put it in a right place:

  1. Content marketers ▪▪▪ to transcend basic sales, and work within the rapidly expanding technology field.   (TO HAVE)
  2. In 2012 we ▪▪▪ these positions solidified, as social marketers working online branch out and become involved in the coding/tech world as well.   (TO SEE)
  3. These positions ▪▪▪ integral to any social marketing campaign.   (TO BECOME)
  4. Otherwise, how ▪▪▪ he or she ▪▪▪ to spot social opportunities when they ▪▪▪?   (TO BE ABLE, TO ARISE)
  5. These media specialists ▪▪▪ to have a 360-degree view of social media.   (TO BE REQUIRED
 

Below recommended tests seem to be rather easy. Nevertheless, keep carefulness! Each test comprises 10 questions. You should choose the best answer to the question. Do all seven tests from English Future Simple Tense. After completing, do not forget to review the questions and your answers.

G O O D   L U C K !

Dear visitor,

Do you need to improve your professional English?

Would you like to gain comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering?

 Subscribe to the ViCTE Newsletter on this blog “Train Technical English.

It encourages you to become excellent at technical communication.

Click Entries RSS     OR     Подписаться письмом  

The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 39                                                                                          June 2012

Composed by Galina Vitkova
 

Editorial

You surely recall that Simple tenses are the most frequently used in technical texts. Therefore this newsletter provides a variety of exercises to work with the Simple Present tense. When reviewing tenses, it’s always a good idea to look again at the basic rules of their forming and usage and have the rules before you eyes while you do some exercises. Even if the reviews provide just a quick summary of a tense structure, they help you to avoid many mistakes (see e.g. Simple tenses – ViCTE Newsletter Number 36 / January 2012 or Conjugate verbs).  

The Present Simple is very often used with the following adverbs of frequency that express how often someone does something habitually. Just recall the Present Simple is used to express daily routines and habits. Below the adverbs of frequency are listed from most frequent to least frequent (from the left to the right):

always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, rarely.never

 

Remember adverbs of frequency are placed directly before the main verb.

This Newsletter contains three exercises dedicated to the mentioned topic. Exercise 1 is an example of the technical text in which practically all verbs are in the Simple Present. Your task is to choose a proper verb from the given box and put it in a right place.

In Exercise 2  you should place verbs and adverbs from the brackets at the end of each sentence in a proper gap. Do not forget to use a correct form of a verb. 

Exercise 3 is about learning technical terms concerning keywords research. First, read (aloud please!) the post Why I busy myself with keywords for Internet search engines.  Try to memorize description of different kinds of keywords and after that do the exercise. Keys to exercises (but do the exercises firstly!) you find as always in Keys to Internet English.

Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e. Internet English Vocabulary.  And again remember: Practice makes perfect!

Technical English Exercises

 
Exercise 1   Put appropriate verbs from the box below into gaps:
 

Make Money Using Keywords

makes – want – defines – produces – increases  – relates  -  contain

 

Learning how to research into profitable keywords and phrases to target on your website or blog is the most essential skill. You absolutely always have to learn the skill if you … (1) … to create any sort of profitable website or blog. Learning how to identify and correctly implement cousin keywords into your content creation … (2) … your traffic through search engines.

A cousin keyword is essentially any term that usually … (3) … similar search results. Phrases that occasionally … (4) … many of the same words or even the exact same words in a different order are the easiest cousin keywords to identify.

Keep in mind that although the term “lawnmower” sometimes … (5) … to term “landscaping”, this doesn’t necessarily mean that these two keywords are viewed as related to each other by a search engine. A good way to determine what a search engine … (6) … as a cousin key term is using Google’s free Adwords keyword tool. Input the keyword or phrase, choose “show only results closely related to my search” and you will be provided with a small list of similar phrases or words that are associated with the word at question.

Knowing how to effectively target cousin keywords … (7) ….  the difference between an unsuccessful blogger and a big-time affiliate marketer.

Exercise 2   Use a proper Present Simple form of a main verb in brackets and put an adverb in a right place:

  1. You ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ to learn the skill if you want to create any sort of profitable website or blog.   (ALWAYS, TO HAVE)
  2. A cousin keyword is essentially any term that ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ similar search results.   (TO PRODUCE, USUALLY)
  3. Phrases that ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦  many of the same words or even the exact same words in a different order are the easiest cousin keywords to identify.   (TO CONTAIN, OCCASIONALLY)
  4. Although the term “lawnmower” ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦  to term “landscaping”, this ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ that these two keywords are viewed as related to each other by a search engine.   (SOMETIMES, TO RELATE, NOT TO MEAN)
  5. Knowing how to effectively target cousin keywords ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ the difference between an unsuccessful blogger and a big-time affiliate marketer.   (TO MAKE, OFTEN)
 Exercise 3   Match terms in Column Y to their description in Column Y
 

Column X – term

Column Y – term description

1. A keyword a collection of words used to make a search A
2. A keyphrase a group of keywords containing a single ‘seed’ keyword B
3. A target keyword any term that produces similar search results C
4. A long tail of keywords a keyword which will bring your site to the top of a SERP D
5. A keyword niche a word used to make a search E
6. A cousin keyword different combinations of head keywords F
 

In order to check how you understand the discussed material click Previous and find Present Simple Worksheet 2. Choose the correct time expression used with the Present Simple tense and check your answers on the Next page.

G O O D    L U C K!

Dear visitor,

Do you need to improve your professional English?

Would you like to gain comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering?

 Subscribe to the ViCTE Newsletter on this blog “Train Technical English.

It encourages you to become excellent at technical communication.

Click Entries RSS     OR     Подписаться письмом  

The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 38                                                                                 April 2012

Composed by Galina Vitkova
 

Editorial

Recently in Definite or Indefinite Article? Put Article or Not? we have discussed articles and their usage in Technical English. The cases that are the most topical for Technical English, where you should remember about articles in technical texts or presentations or any other technical reading and writing applications, have been argued. Now let us practise articles usage by doing exercises based on the text  Who else will discuss PageRank calculations?  In total ten sentences have been chosen from this text and seven of them were used in three exercises below in different combinations and for slightly different purposes.

Just for refreshing your knowledge of the rules about articles start the study of this Newsletter with taking the Free English Articles (A, An, The) Tests, i.e. Articles Test 001, Articles Test 017 (you may take more tests from number 002 to number 016). It will spirit you up and help to do the proposed below exercises correctly. And please before doing exercises read aloud the whole text Who else will discuss PageRank calculations?. Articulation within reading aloud contributes to your better spelling and understanding English. When reading make sure you give each word its correct pronunciation.

In Exercise 1 consisting of 10 sentences you should put appropriate articles in appropriate places. When doing the exercise you may always consult your solution with the text Who else will discuss PageRank calculations?

Exercise 2 and Exercise 3 are about word order and articles. In Exercise 2 you are given all words of the sentences including articles, but in a disordered sequence. Your task is as always to build sentences putting the given words into the correct word order. The quite same sentences with the same words as in Exercise 2 from the mentioned text are applied as a basis in Exercise 3. But not all of words are given in assignment sentences. In this case your task is to add missing words in a correct form and build a complete sentence. Again you may drop a look at the appropriate sentences in Who else will discuss PageRank calculations? Firstly exercises of such a kind appeared in Build sentences afresh – ViCTE Newsletter Number 37 / March 2012 .   

Compare please the way of practising sentence building in Exercise 2 and -Exercise 3. What way is more suitable for you? Give your reasons! Just train and learn by heart new technical terms on the topic, when doing the exercises, and enrich your English vocabulary efficiently.

Keys to exercises (but do the exercises firstly!) you find as always in Keys to Internet English.

Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e. Internet English Vocabulary. And remember: Practice makes perfect!

Technical English Exercises

 

Exercise 1  Put a definite or an indefinite or 0 article:

  1. In ▪▪▪ field of  ▪▪▪ information retrieval on ▪▪▪ web PageRank has emerged as ▪▪▪ primary hyperlink analysis algorithm.
  2. But how it works still remains ▪▪▪ obscurity to many in ▪▪▪ SEO online community.
  3. According to ▪▪▪ rules about passing rank each page passes ▪▪▪ part of its PageRank to other pages.
  4. ▪▪▪ resulting PageRanks are depicted in ▪▪▪ following table below.
  5. In practice it is necessary to do identical operations 50 to 100 times to guarantee ▪▪▪ sufficient accuracy of ▪▪▪ iterations.
  6. In ▪▪▪ first run of ▪▪▪ calculations, Page C increases PageRank of Page A. 
  7. In ▪▪▪ next run Page C gets itself ▪▪▪ increase in PageRank that is proportional to ▪▪▪ new improved PageRank of Page A.
  8. When looking for links to your site, from ▪▪▪ purely PageRank point of view, ▪▪▪ pages with ▪▪▪ highest Toolbar PageRank seem to be ▪▪▪ best solution.
  9. Maybe ▪▪▪ best solution is getting links from sites that seem appropriate and have ▪▪▪ good quality, regardless of their current PageRank.
  10. Control of ▪▪▪ feedback by using ▪▪▪ internal pages of your site, is much easier than ▪▪▪ control with ▪▪▪ help of links to external pages.

Exercise 2  Build sentences putting the words below into correct word order: 

  1. of information – In the field – algorithm – hyperlink – PageRank  – on the web -  as the primary – analysis – has emerge.
  2. remains an – But – it – many in – online – community  – still – obscurity to – works – the SEO – how -.
  3. identical  – the sufficient – In practice – it is – necessary – the iterations – accuracy of – to guarantee – to 100 times  – operations 50 – to do -
  4. In the – run of – the calculations – of Page A – increases – PageRank – first – Page C -.
  5. run – In the next – proportional to – improved – of Page A – in PageRank – gets -  Page C  – PageRank – the new – increase – that is – itself an -.
  6. current – from sites – getting – solution is – appropriate – have good – quality, – PageRank – of their – regardless – links – that seem – the best – and – Maybe -.
  7. easier than – of feedback – the internal – the help of – than – links to – external  -  control with – by using – is much – pages – Control – your site – pages of -.

Exercise 3  Build sentences from the given words below:

  1. field / information retrieval / web / PageRank / emerge / primary / hyperlink / analysis algorithm.
  2. But / how / work / still / remain / obscurity / many / SEO online community.
  3. According / rules / passing rank / each page / pass / part / its PageRank / other pages.
  4. In practice / necessary / do identical operations 50 / 100 times / guarantee the sufficient accuracy / iterations.
  5. In / first run / calculations / Page C / increase / PageRank / Page A.
  6. next run / Page C / get itself / increase / PageRank / proportional / new improved PageRank / Page A.
  7. Maybe / best solution is / get / links / sites / seem appropriate and have / good quality, regardless / their current PageRank.

In conclusion test your English pronunciation skills: listen and choose the word with pronunciation different from the pronunciation of the rest. Just click

English Pronunciation Test 03, English Pronunciation Test 04, English Pronunciation Test 05.

GOOD  LUCK !

Dear visitor,

Do you need to improve your professional English?

Would you like to gain comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering?

 Subscribe to the ViCTE Newsletter on this blog “Train Technical English.

It encourages you to become excellent at technical communication.

Click Entries RSS     OR     Подписаться письмом  

 

The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 37                                                                                 March 2012

Composed Galina Vitkova

Editorial

Regarding to the importance of word order in English it is necessary to practise it again and again. Just for refreshing in your memory basic rules concerning word order look once more through ViCTE Newsletter Number 15 – SVOMPT (Word Order) / November 2009, ViCTE Newsletter Number 18 – Use RULE 1-2-3 for questions / March 2010 .

Now you are proposed the additional way of the word order practicing that is inspired by Sentence Building – Basic Level Tests . The following Exercise 1 is framed and composed in compliance with this a bit new approach. For this reason, try to do English Sentence Building – Basic Level Test 001 and English Sentence Building – Basic Level Test 002, before doing Exercise 1. It will help you to better understand the spirit of such exercises.

As for Exercise 1 it is based on the technical text One way to understand PageRank at the blog Why Technical English. The structure of the exercise is influenced by above mentioned tests, which are relatively difficult, but doing them you will gain great experience with building English sentences. Thus, first things first read thoughtfully the One way to understand PageRank, try to understand as much as possible, and after that do Exercise 1.

In Exercise 1 you are given words in a right order and your task is to add missing words in compliance with the above mentioned rules.

Exercise 2 comprises a technical text tightly connected with the topic SEO, PageRank and the role of Twitter in ranking of your page or blog. Read the text as quickly as you can and match headings of the paragraph in column X to from the text of the proper paragraph in column Y.

Keys to exercises you find as always in Keys to Internet English.

Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e. Internet English Vocabulary.

Technical English Exercises

Exercise 1   Build sentences based on the given words:

  • Example:   PageRank / number / only evaluates / voting ability / incoming links / page.
  •            KEY:   PageRank is a number that only evaluates the voting ability of all incoming links to a page.
  1. PageRank / developed / Larry Page and Sergey Brin /Stanford University.
  2. The PageRank process / been patented / assigned /Stanford University, not  / Google.
  3. Google / have / exclusive license rights / patent / university?
  4. The university / receive / 1.8 million shares / Google in exchange / use / patent.
  5. The first paper / project describing PageRank / published / 1998.
  6. There / some basic information / needed to know / understanding PageRank.
  7. every unique page / site that / indexed / Google / have /own PageRank?
  8. In the following text / “actual PageRank” / employed / deal / actual PageRank value / store / Google.
  9. the term “Toolbar PageRank” / concern / the evaluation / value / you see / Google Toolbar?
  10. PageRank calculations / its first model / easier / compute / the total number /web pages /disregarded.

Exercise 2    Read the technical text below and match headings of paragraphs to a text of an appropriate paragraph:

The importance of Twitter as part of your Online Branding and SEO (the adapted excerpt from http://mediasocial.co.nz/2011/12/01/)

Social Signals. Both Google and Bing have admitted that social media signals are being incorporated into the search algorithm as a ranking factor. Content shared on Twitter can be indexed by search engines and actually rank in the search results. The more time a piece of content is Tweeted and reTweeted, the more important it becomes in the eyes of the search engines.

Author Authority. For attaining the author authority it is important to take the time to actually build a Twitter profile and connect with real, human users. The search engines don’t just look at how many times your content is being Tweeted, but who is doing the Tweeting! How long has that person been active on Twitter? Who are their followers? What kind of content do they usually share?

Brand Awareness. If you think the only goal of SEO is to rank number one, you miss the bigger picture. Of course you want to rank well, but SEO is also designed to increase your overall online presence and brand awareness, so your target audience can more easily find you. Twitter is a great way to increase your brand awareness. It allows you to connect with your customers in a new and personalised way. When someone Tweets about your brand/products, they are broadcasting your message to their social network as well, increasing your reach.

 

Column X – The heading of a paragraph

Column Y – The text of a paragraph

 

1.

Social Signals The search engines don’t just look at how many times your content is being Tweeted, but who is doing the Tweeting!

A

2.

Author Authority It (Twitter) allows you to connect with your customers in a new and personalised way.

B

3.

Brand Awareness Content shared on Twitter can be indexed by search engines and actually rank in the search results.

C

For practising beatiful English pronunciation visit http://www.dailystep.com/content.asp?id=16

It takes only few minutes.

GOOD  lUCK !

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It encourages you to became exellent at technical communication.

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The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 36                                                                                 January 2012

Editorial

Despite the English language comprises12 tenses, only several of them are frequently used, especially in technical English. The brief review of English tenses you can find in Conjugate verbs at my new blog Technical English Remarks.

In technical English texts the Present Simple and Past Simple tenses are vastly applied. That’s why the following Technical English Exercises are devoted to these tenses. The first two exercises are built on the base of the technical text Search engine – essential information. The last exercise uses a technical text International markets, which is topically closed to the main text, i.e. to the just mentioned technical text from Why Technical English.

Just for reminding all tenses in English the table with them is repeatedly placed here, too. See it carefully.

Tenses
Aux.  verb
Past
Present
Future
Simple „to do“ Ques.& negative: did + infinitive without „to“ Ques.& negative: do, does + infinitive without „to“ will + infinitive without „to“
Continuous „to be“ was, were + “ing“ am, are, it  + “ing“ will be + “ing“
Perfect „to have“ had + past participle have, has + past participle will have + past participle
Perfect Continuous „to have been“ had been + “ing“ have been, has been + “ing“ will have been + “ing“

 

In Exercise 1 your are given infinitives of propre verbs and your task is to use the Simple Present or Simple Past for the verb. In Exercise 2 you should make questions, using appropriate auxiliary verbs if necessary. Refresh in your memory, how English question sentences are built visiting Number 18 – Use RULE 1-2-3 for questions / March 2010. Exercise 3 gives you the opportunity to choose appropriate verbs in the Present Simple or Past Simple tenses from the table below the title of the text  and put them in the right place.

Compare your solutions with keys in Keys to Internet English. Technical terms and expressions, possible abbreviations connected with both mentioned texts could be found in the enclosed technical English vocabulary, i.e. Internet English Vocabulary.

 

Technical English Exercises

Exercise 1  Put verbs in brackets at the end of each sentence into correct tense:

  1.  Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) ▪▪▪ to maximize profitable traffic from search engines to websites.   (to aim)
  2. Graduate students at Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, ▪▪▪  a mathematical algorithm for a search engine to rate the prominence of web pages.  (to develop)
  3. PageRank ▪▪▪ the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly ▪▪▪ the web. (to estimate, to surf)
  4. Page and Brin ▪▪▪ Google using the developed algorithm for searching in 1998.  (to found)
  5. Google ▪▪▪ immediately the growing number of Internet users due to its simple design.   (to attract)
  6. Many sites ▪▪▪ on exchanging, buying, and selling links, often on a massive scale.   (to focus)
  7. In 2007, Google ▪▪▪ a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank.  (to annonce)
  8. Adding relevant keywords to a web page meta data ▪▪▪ to increase traffic to the page.     (to tend)

  Exercise 2  Make questions beginning with given expressions in bold:

  1.  The success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search.   WHAT … BY?
  2. Search engines with more complex ranking algorithms, taking into account additional factors have been evolved.     WHAT ALGORITHM …WITH?
  3. The number calculated by the algorithm, has been named PageRank after Larry Page.      WHO … AFTER?
  4. In Google off-page factors as well as on-page factors are considered.     WHAT FACTORS …?
  5. Webmasters had developed link building tools to influence search engine results.   WHAT TOOLS …?
  6. Google Instant, real-time-search, was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant.     WHEN …?
  7. Site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings.  HOW MUCH TIME …?
  8. A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results.     CAN …?
  9. Cross linking between pages of the same website or blog may improve its visibility.     MAY …?
  10. Updating content keeping search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site.     CAN …?

Exercise 3  Put verbs in the table below into an appropriate place:

International markets 

held  – vary – provides – remains – represented – may require – is lagging

 

Optimisation techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. The search engines market shares … (1) … from market to market, as does competition. In 2003 Google … (2) … about 75% of all searches. In markets outside the United States, Google’s share is often larger, and Google … (3) … the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. As of 2006, Google … (4) … an 85-90% market share in Germany. While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time, there were only about five in Germany. As of June 2008, the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90%. That market share is achieved in a number of countries.

As of 2009, there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. In most cases, when Google is not leading in a given market, it … (5) … behind a local player. The most notable markets where this is the case are China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu, Yahoo! Japan, Naver, Yandex and Seznam are market leaders.

Successful search optimization for international markets … (6) … professional translation of web pages, registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market, and web hosting that … (7) … a local IP address. Otherwise, the fundamental elements of search optimisation are essentially the same, regardless of language.

In conclusion I highly recommend looking through the quiz Present Simple (total number of sentences makes 16). It will help you better remember peculiarities of this tense.

GOOD LUCK !

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PS: Dear visitor, if you want to improve your professional English and at the same time to gain basic comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, subscribe to this blog “Train Technical English.

Look at the right sidebar and subscribe as you like:

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The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 35                                                                                 December 2011

Editorial

Within preparation of the e-book Internet English (its intended content is given in Number 33 – WWW, Part 1 / August 2011) let us continue in discussing the topic concerning website basic information (see Website – basic information). The discussion is aimed at developing an individual vocabulary and extending it by technical terms and expressions typical for this theme.

So, Exercise 1 is devoted to completing word formation charts by filling in gaps with a proper form of absent words. In general, the word formation charts provide the concept noun, personal noun, adjective and verb forms of key vocabulary.

The following three exercises deal with comprehension of texts about a website and with right selection of appropriate words. In Exercise 2 proper words are given in the box and they are supposed to be put in the right place in the subsequent text. In Exercise 3 a proper expression for filling in gaps in the text about Cookies should be chosen of four possibilities. Exercise 4 is first of all about comprehension. If you understand the text, you will easily match the words in Column A to the expressions in Column B. New and unknown terms and expressions might be found in the Internet English Vocabulary. Keys to these exercises are in Keys to Internet English.

Exercises

 

Exercise 1  Word formation charts – fill in gaps with a proper form of the word:

Concept noun

Personal noun

Adjective

Verb

access

accessor

accessory / … …

… …

… … analyst … … analyse

beginning

… …

beginning

… …

building

 building / … …

building built (built-in, built-up)

build

constructing / construction

… …

constructed / … …

construct

informing / … …

informer

informed / informative

… …

keeping / keep

keeper

… …

keep

link / … … / linkage

linker

… …

link

… … / performing

… …

performing

perform

reminder

… … 

remindful

remind

sending

sender

… …

send

subjecting  / subject

subject

subject / … …

… …

 

Exercise 2   Fill in the gaps using words from the table below:

services – informational – hyperlinks – reminder – commercial – contents – photos – pages – enterprises – begin

 

Most websites ▪▪▪ (1) ▪▪▪ as a simple homepage accessible through the original URL. The homepage is, in essence, a portal to the ▪▪▪ (2) ▪▪▪ of the information or ▪▪▪ (3) ▪▪▪ contained within the website. The homepage and all that it contains is linked to other ▪▪▪ (4) ▪▪▪ and often other websites though ▪▪▪ (5) ▪▪▪ contained within tabs or text. All of the linked pages within a single domain name make up the entire website.

Website ▪▪▪ (6) ▪▪▪ can vary considerably. While the Internet might have once been the domain of ▪▪▪ (7) ▪▪▪ interests, it is now available to all manners of users. Family websites with vacation ▪▪▪ (8) ▪▪▪ are hosted by the same server companies as major commercial ▪▪▪ (9) ▪▪▪ . This says nothing of the many service organisations, blogs ▪▪▪ (10) ▪▪▪ sites and news organisations comprising pages of the World Wide Web.

 

Exercise 3   Decide which answer (A, B, C, D) best fits each gap:

HTTP cookies

Sometimes known as web cookies or just cookies, are parcels of the ▪▪▪ (1) ▪▪▪ sent by a server to a web browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it accesses that server. HTTP cookies are used for authenticating, tracking, and maintaining ▪▪▪ (2) ▪▪▪  information about users.

Cookies have been of concern for Internet privacy, since they can be used for the ▪▪▪ (3) ▪▪▪  of the browsing behavior. As a result, they have been the ▪▪▪ (4) ▪▪▪ to legislation in various countries such as the United States and in the European Union. Cookies have also been criticised because the identification of users they provide is not always ▪▪▪ (5) ▪▪▪ . Moreover, they could potentially be used for network attacks. Some alternatives to cookies exist, but each has its own drawbacks.

Cookies are also the subject to a number of misconceptions, mostly ▪▪▪ (6) ▪▪▪ on the erroneous notion that they are computer programs. In fact, cookies are simple pieces of data unable to ▪▪▪ (7) ▪▪▪ any operation by themselves. In particular, they are neither spyware nor viruses, despite the detection of cookies from certain sites by many anti-spyware products.

1

A

text

B

document

C

words

D

notes

2

A

specific

B

concrete

C

particular

D

distinctive

3

A

keeping

B

tracking

C

monitoring

D

tracing

4

A

subject

B

object

C

target

D

matter

5

A

exact

B

accurate

C

proper

D

precise

6

A

made

B

founded

C

formed

D

based

7

A

perform

B

make

C

do

D

execute

 

Exercise 4   Match the words in Column A to the expressions in Column B

 

Column A

 

Column B

1

(web) traffic

a

has frequently changing information or interacts with the user from various methods

2

static content (of a web site)

b

organize the web pages into a hierarchy

3

a dynamic website

c

a computer system on which a website is hosted

4

a website

d

is measured by the number of visitors and the number of pages they visit to see the popularity of websites

5

URLs

e

the main or first page of a web site, typically with hyperlinks to the other pages

6

a web server

f

a collection of pages dedicated to a similar or identical subject or purpose hosted through a single domain

7

homepage

g

can be dynamically generated either periodically or if certain conditions for regeneration occur

 

Have you been enriching your vocabulary? Try to look  through Basic English  once more and find out how many words from this basic dictionary you know.

 

Do you remember Teacher Joe? Listen to him again and learn smooth English rhythm with this video.

GOOD LUCK!

 PS:  Dear visitor, if you want to improve your professional English and at the same time to gain basic comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, subscribe to this blogTrain Technical English.

Look at the right sidebar and subscribe as you like:

The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 34                                                                                 November 2011

Editorial

We are getting on with studying technical texts about the Internet. The other principal technical text on this theme is brought up on the blog http://techenglish.wordpress.com titled The Semantic Web – great expectations. Together with a short text Schema.org project supports building the Semantic Web in this Newsletter it forms a base for following three exercises. The first of the exercises reminds how to decide what to use so or such (see also Number 29 – Easy such and so / April 2011). Given the opportunity look through very nice quizzes on this theme in So vs Such, too. The next exercise is about synonyms. Your are encouraged to use as many synonyms in your writing as possible. Drop a look at Number 24 – SYNONYMS/ August 2010 and get inspiration in Synonym Finder. The word order in English is not too complicated. Nevertheless, it should be strictly kept when writing or speaking. Thus you are offered to do the last exercise for training correct usage of the word order. For refreshing appropriate rules see again Word order in English http://linguapress.com/grammar/word-order.htm and Number 15 – SVOMPT (Word Order) / November 2009. Compare your solutions with keys in Keys to Internet English. Technical terms and expressions, possible abbreviations connected with both above mentioned texts could be found in Internet English Vocabulary.

Schema.org project supports the Semantic Web

 

1

The term Semantic Web was for the first time mentioned by W3C director Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web inventor, in 2001. Nonetheless, implementation of Semantic Web principles has not been widespread since then. Up to now the approach has been successful in two major ways.

2

First – Linked data.  Sophisticated Web users have built and implemented a network of linked data. Due to this searching for various content sources that address the same concepts of the information has become much easier.

 

3

Second – Embedding metadata. Structured data specifications have appeared for embedding metadata directly in HTML pages. The most common specifications are microdata, microformats, and RDFa (Resource Description Framework in attributes). However, these specifications take different approaches to using tags to embed information about elements in web pages.

 

4

Nowadays major search engines are still built on different syntaxes and different vocabularies even for the same type of information. Thus, in the worst case, website developers mark up their pages in multiple ways in order to make them work with several search machines. This has made the process complicated and capable of making of errors.

 

5

Schema.org project has arisen as a response to improve conditions for building the Semantic Web and to help advance Semantic Web implementation. The project was launched by Bing, Google and Yahoo! on 2 June 2011. The operators of the world three largest search engines have agreed to support structured data specifications and vocabularies They propose to mark up website content as metadata about itself, using microdata, according to their schemas.

 

6

It could arouse the visibility of semantic technologies and encourage website operators to incorporate semantic data into their web pages. Though the project started with microdata, its long term goal is to support a wider range of schemas. Nevertheless, present exclusive use of microdata in the Schema.org project raises concerns that the specification limitations could cause some problems. The Web is so diverse, creating a single vocabulary that addresses all markup needs has not proven to be practical. In any case, now website owners and search-engine-optimization specialists know that the three major search engines will understand their pages. And as Web-development tools increase support for microdata, the Schema.org specifications should become easier to implement.

7

The project also comprises an extension mechanism for appending additional properties of data. A mailing list is provided for discussing of the project.

References:

 

Exercises

 

Exercise 1  In the sentences below use SO or SUCH:

  1. ▪▪▪ an approach has been successful ▪▪▪ far in two major ways.
  2. Adoption of ▪▪▪ Semantic Web principles has been somewhat limited.
  3. ▪▪▪ sophisticated Web users have built a network of linked data, ▪▪▪ a system of linked datasets describing the same people, places, and things.
  4. These new technologies are ▪▪▪ powerful that let sophisticated users find, share, and process data, as well as find related datasets.
  5. ▪▪▪ specifications take different approaches to using tags to embed information about words, numbers, and other elements in web pages.
  6. Unfortunately, most of all websites incorporate data, whose specifications are ▪▪▪ incompatible that could not be successfully searched by different search engines.
  7. The Web is ▪▪▪ diverse that creating ▪▪▪ a single vocabulary, which addresses all markup needs, has not proven to be practical.
  8. We are expecting the Schema.org will have ▪▪▪ an impact in the next few months.
  9. Due to linked data searching for various content sources that address the same information has become ▪▪▪ easy.
  10. But the specifications take ▪▪▪ different approaches to using tags to embed information about elements in web pages that they do not help much.

 

Exercise 2   Match proposed synonyms to words in the text:

Paragr.

Synonyms in the text

Proposed synonyms

1

 … … … coined

2

 … … … intelligent

3

 … … … emerged

4

 … … … difficult

5

 … … … , … … … progress, was started

6

 … … … , … … … embody, varied

7

 … … … supplementary

 

Exercise 3  Make sentences putting the given words into a correct order:

  1. an – Such – in – ways – so – has – approach – major – two – successful – far – been -.
  2. principles – Semantic – Adoption – been – limited – Web – has – such – somewhat – of -.
  3. linked – sophisticated – have – data – Such – users – of – Web – network  – built a -.
  4. incorporate – are – all – of – Most – incompatible – so – specifications – , whose  – data – websites -.
  5. vocabulary – needs – is - The – so – is – all – not – for – a single  – that – creating  – Web – practical – diverse -.
  6. the – impact – positive – so – are – We – Schema.org - expecting  – be – will -.
  7. approaches – help – to – different  – do – they – The – that – much – such – take – specifications – using  – not – tags -.

 

Do you remember Teacher Joe? Listen to him and learn smooth English rhythm with this video.

GOOD LUCK!

 

 

The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 33                                                                                  August 2011

Editorial

Dear friend of Technical English!

I taught Technical English for 11years at the Technical University in Prague on the Faculty of electrical engineering. Gradually I have been preparing technical texts concerning computers and the Internet, which are accompanied by exercises for development of communication skills, as materials for classroom presentations and essay writing.

Now I have decided to publish the texts as an e-book that can help professionals who need TE in their work and students to keep their knowledge of English and develop communication skills.

But before publishing I’d like to discuss the structure and the content of the e-book with subscribers and readers or visitors of my blogs http://techenglish.wordpress.com and https://traintechenglish.wordpress.com.

A draft of the e-book structure:

  • Internet – historical review
  • World Wide Web
  • Internet Structure 
  • Internet Backbone 
  • Hypertext
  • Website Characteristics
  • Website Design
  • Web Servers 
  • Web Browsers
  • Internet Service Providers and Web-hosting
  • Internet Marketing

Each topic from the list above will make a unit comprising a main technical text, exercises, abbreviations, possibly a short text.

The main technical texts will be published on the blog http://techenglish.wordpress.com   while exercises, short texts, abbreviations, vocabulary will be placed on the blog https://traintechenglish.wordpress.com.

The vocabulary for all units will be placed on the page Internet English Vocabulary.

Thank you for your confident comments and estimation.               Galina Vitkova

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. A Web browser enables a user to view Web pages that may contain text, images, and other multimedia. Moreover, the browser ensures navigation between the pages using hyperlinks. The Web was created around 1990 by the English Tim Berners-Lee and the Belgian Robert Cailliau working at CERN  in Geneva, Switzerland.

Architettura web semantico

Image via Wikipedia

Architecture of the semantic Web

The term Web is often mistakenly used as a synonym for the Internet itself, but the Web is a service that operates over the Internet, as e-mail, for example, does. The history of the Internet dates back significantly further than that of the Web.

The text continues in “World Wide Web” on the blog http://techenglish.wordpress.com

 Exercises

Exercise 1   Make sentences putting the given words into a correct order:

  1. pages – A Web – a user to – browser – enables – Web  – view – .
  2. images – contain – Web – other – text – , and – pages – multimedia – may – .
  3. navigations – Hyperlinks – used – pages – are – web – between – for – .
  4. Berners-Lee – be the – Web – conceived the – Semantic – Web to – .
  5. pages  – Web – include – Most – hyperlinks – .
  6. server-name – The first – resolve – step, – , is to – IP address – the URL – part of – into an – of the  -.
  7. HTTP – sent – A – to the – request – server – is  – Web – .

 Exercise 2   Choose correct answers to the questions beginning with the words in brackets:

1        By definition or by necessity, the Web has such a massive potential

           for social exchange.  (Why … ?)

  • Why does the web have such a massive potential for social exchange?
  • Why does have the web such a massive potential for social exchange?
  • Why the web has such a massive potential for social exchange?

2        The Web is the most far-reaching and extensive medium of

           personal exchange to appear on the Earth.  (What … ?)

  •  What is the web medium?
  •  What medium is the web?
  •  What medium the web is?

3        Some search engines such as Google or Yahoo! also store

          cached content from Web sites.  (What … ?) (subject question)

  • What do some search engines also store from Web sites?
  • What search engines store cached content from Web sites?
  • What store some search engines from Web sites?

4        Unique resource identifiers locate a particular resource (a computer

          file, document or other resource) on the network (Where … ?)

  • Where do URIs locate a particular resource?
  • Where locate URIs a particular resource?
  • Where URIs locate a particular resource?

  5        In the Client-server model of computing a server computer

             provides the client with data.    (What … with?)  

  • What a server computer provides the client with?
  • What provides a server computer the client with?
  • What does a server computer provide the client with?

6        The HTML text is first requested and parsed by the browser. 

           (What … by?)

  • a. What the HTML is first requested and parsed by?
  • What is the HTML first requested and parsed by?
  • What is first requested and parsed the HTML by?

7        More than 550 million documents on the Web  are mostly in

           the “invisible Web”.  (How many … ?)

  • How many documents on the web are mostly in the „invisible web“?
  • How many documents are on the web mostly in the „invisible web“?

 Find keys to the exercises on the page Keys to Internet English.

GOOD LUCK!

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