The ViCTE Newsletter

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 43                                                                                 May 2013

Composed by Galina Vitkova

Editorial

In technical texts we often encounter prepositions AT, IN, ON as prepositions of place and time. General considerations about these prepositions you may find in many grammar books, e.g. in English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy, which is one of the best English Grammar book. You can download this book from the site http://www.alleng.ru/d/engl_en/eng010.htm). Moreover, this topic has recently been discussed at the blog Technical English Remarks in the post AT / IN / ON – Какой предлог выбрать? There you retrieve some useful and captivating examples.  Just follow a brief overlook of these prepositions usage adown.

 AT, IN, ON as prepositions of time

In general we use AT for time of day, e.g. at five o´clock / at midnight;
We use ON for days and dates, e.g.: on Tuesday / Tuesdays / on 2 May 2013;
We use IN saying about longer periods, e.g. in the Middle Ages / in the 21 century.
It is frequently used on time and in time.  ON time means punctually (i.e. at the time as it was planned, not late). IN time means soon enough.  Examples:  

Company ТЕРСО managed to put into run the cooling system of Unit 1 on time. (as it was planned) / The European Unie approved the Implementing Regulation in time. (i.e. soon enough to prevent expanding intoxicated products)

 See more interesting details about these prepositions in English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy .

AT, IN, ON as prepositions of place

We use IN when speak about placement inside something (inside a limited space), e.g.: in your city / in your hand / in Japan / in the field of renewable energy etc.
AT is used in the following cases (see examples): at the door / at the window /at the bus-stop / at the end of the generator hall / at a power plant.
 ON is used when speaking about placement on a surface: on the ceiling of a generator hall / on the table of the generator hall manager.

Find more fascinating details and examples about these prepositions in English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy .

Now do Exercise 1 practising usage of prepositions AT IN ON in technical texts. The sentences of this exercise are excerpted from the technical text Once more about Fukushima accident at the blog Why Technical English .Your task is to put AT IN ON into appropiate gaps using above mentioned recommendations.

Exercise 3 is about the Simple Past tense As it was meant for several times this tense is widely used in technical texts. So it is favourable to revise this topic again and again. Brush up on the rules concerning the topic in Past Tenses Review and do the exercise after it.
Exercise 2 is devoted to Synonyms that enrich you vocabulary and improve your communication skills.

Keys to exercises 1 to 3 you find in  Keys to Newsletters from Number 19.   Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e.  TrainTE Vocabulary and in  Technical English Vocabulary – power engineering.

Technical English Exercises

Exercise 1   Put appropriate prepositions (AT, IN, ON) into gaps:

  1. Two years ago, ■■■ 11 March 2011, ■■■ Japan the strongest earthquake accompanying by tsunami happened.

  2. Te tsunami caused the accident ■■■ the Nuclear Power Plant Fukushima-1.(or Fukushima Daiichi)

  3. The NPP Fukushima-1 is located near Okum city ■■■Fukushima prefecture.

  4. The NPP was built ■■■ 1960–1970 and is operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO).

  5. The accident ■■■ the NPP Fukushima-1 occurred practically immediately after the earthquake and tsunami.

  6. Radioactive substances were revealed ■■■drinking water and food not only ■■■ Fukushima prefecture, but ■■■ the other regions of Japan, too.

  7. ■■■ December 2011 cool shutdown of reactors was completed

  8. ■■■18 March 2013 ■■■ the evening a new accident caused by failure of cooling systems of spent nuclear fuel pools ■■■Units 1, 3, 4 took place.

  9. ■■■19 March the company ТЕРСО managed to put into run the cooling system of Unit 1.

  10. Following the accident ■■■ the Fukushima NPP ■■■ 11 March 2011, the European Unie approved the Implementing Regulation ■■■ 26 October 2012.

 Exercise 2   Find SYNONYMS in the text below for Proposed expressions:

Some details about the Fukushima accident

(adapted from http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html)

Paragraph 1

There are three basic safety functions of the IAEA safety standards: prevention of criticality, removal of decay heat and mitigation of radioactive releases. So immediately after the accident at the Fukushima plant measures to bring the nuclear reactors and the spent fuel pools to a stable cooling condition and to mitigate radioactive releases were implemented.

Paragraph 2

On 13 May the preparatory work on the installation of a cover for the reactor building of Unit 1 was commenced. The reactor building cover should be an emergency measure to prevent the dispersion of radioactive substances

Paragraph 3

In Units 1, 2 and 3 fresh water was continuously injected both via the feed water system lines and the fire-fighting unit lines into the reactor pressure vessel. So temperatures and pressures in the vessels remained stable.

Paragraph 4

Stagnant water with high level of radioactivity in the basement of the turbine buildings of Units 1 and 3 was transferred to the radioactive waste treatment facility, Stagnant water in the basement of the turbine building of Unit 6 was transferred to a temporary storage tank. Countermeasures against the outflow of water to the sea and to prevent and minimize the dispersion of radionuclides in water were put in place.

No of a paragraph

Proposed expressions

Expressions in the given text you found

Paragraph 1

disposal
radioactive substances
efforts
minimize
■■■
■■■
■■■
■■■

Paragraph 2

preparatory action

was begun

extraordinary measure

■■■

■■■

■■■

Paragraph 3

uninterruptedly

kept

■■■

■■■

Paragraph 4

highly radioactive

ancillary

expanding

were put into operation

■■■

■■■

■■■

■■■

 

Exercise 3   Use the Simple Past Tense for the verbs in brackets at the end of each sentence:

  1. Two years ago, on 11 March 2011, in Japan the strongest earthquake accompanying by tsunami ■■■. (HAPPEN)
  2. The tsunami ■■■ the accident at the Nuclear Power Plant Fukushima-1. (CAUSE)
  3. The accident at the NPP Fukushima-1 ■■■ immediately after the earthquake and tsunami.  (OCCUR)
  4. On 18 March 2013 in the evening a new accident caused by failure of cooling systems of spent nuclear fuel pools of Units 1, 3, 4 ■■■. (TAKE PLACE)
  5. On 19 March the company ТЕРСО ■■■ to put into run the cooling system of Unit 1. (MANAGE)
  6. Following the accident at the Fukushima NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Unie ■■■ the Implementing Regulation on 26 October 2012. (APPROVE)

Abbreviations:

IAEA – International Atomic Energy Agency

ТЕРСО – Tokyo Electric Power Company

NPP – Nuclear Power Plant

 

Recommended activities

Practise prepositions AT, IN, ON doing exercise „In on at exercise on prepositions!“ on the site http://www.easypacelearning.com/exercises/626-in-on-at-exercise-on-prepositions-learning-english.

Listen to ESL Listening Exercise: Past Tense for Beginners and improve your English pronunciation in such a manner.

 Revise tense – definition and examples of grammatical tense in English and do exercises English Past Simple Tense – Test 07,  English Past Simple Tense – Test 08 and English Past Simple Tense – Test 09.

 GOOD  LUCK!

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