The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 29                                                                                  April 2011

Editorial 

 Such and so make meaning of adjectives and adverbs stronger. We use such with adjectives plus  nouns and we use so with adjectives / adverbs.

such an important problem     the problem is so important
such a high temperature          the temperature is so high
such clever students                students are so clever
  students make decisions so quickly

Exercise 1 and quiz So & Such are devoted to this problem. Exercise 2 is intended to revise words from the offered text. In Exercise 3 you will again revise a word order in question sentences (see the rule 1-2-3 in Number 18 – Use RULE 1-2-3 for questions / March 2010).

You find keys to all exercises in Keys to Newsletters from Number 19 up to Number 29(But please do the exercises firstly!).

Good luck!

 Nuclear power – tokamaks

A diagram depicting the poloidal direction (the red arrow), and the toroidal direction (the blue arrow).

A diagram depicting the poloidal direction (the red arrow), and the toroidal direction (the blue arrow).

A tokamak is a device using a magnetic field to confine a plasma in the shape of a torus (doughnut). Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas, in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Achieving a stable plasma equilibrium requires a magnetic field that moves around the torus in a helical shape (helix is a type of a space curve). Such a helical field can be generated by adding a toroidal field and a poloidal field (see picture 1) In a tokamak, the toroidal field is produced by electromagnets that surround the torus, and the poloidal field is the result of a toroidal electric current that flows inside the plasma. This current is induced inside the plasma with a second set of electromagnets.   

The tokamak is one of several types of magnetic confinement devices, and is one of the most-researched candidates for producing controlled thermonuclear fusion power (see also Fission and fusion power in Number 28 – SVOMT revising/March 2011).

Magnetic fields are used for confinement because no solid material could withstand the extremely high temperature of the plasma. An alternative to the tokamak is the stellarator.

Tokamaks were invented in the 1950s by Soviet physicists Igor Tamm and Andrei Sakharov, inspired by an original idea of Oleg Lavrentyev.

The word tokamak is a transliteration of the Russian word токамак, an acronym of either “тороидальная камера с магнитными катушками” (toroidal’naya kamera s magnitnymi katushkami) – a toroidal chamber with magnetic coils, or “тороидальная камера с аксиальным магнитным полем” (toroidal’naya kamera s aksial’nym magnitnym polem) – a toroidal chamber with an axial magnetic field.   

References: from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia

Vocabulary

English Russian Czech
axial magnetic  field аксиальное магнитное поле axiální  magnetické pole
confinement герметизация, локализация,  удержание omezení/ omezování
doughnut пончик, пышка kobliha
helical shape винтообразный, спиралевидный spirálovitý, šroubovitý
induce возбуждать, наводить navodit, vyvolat
magnetic coil магнитная катушка magnetická  cívka
magnetic confinement магнитное удержание, удержание в магнитном поле (плазмы), удержание магнитным полем magnetické omezující zařízení
particle частица, бесконечно малая частица   вещества (elementární) částice,částečka
physicist физик fyzik
plasma плазма plazma
poloidal field полоидальное поле  
stable plasma equilibrium устойчивая плазма, устойчивое равновесие плазмы stabilní rovnováha plazmy
state of matter состояние вещества  
stellarator стелларатор (установка для термоядерного синтеза) zařízení pro termonukleární syntézu
thermonuclear fusion power энергия термоядерного синтеза energie termonukleární syntézy
toroidal field тороидальное  (магнитное) поле prstencové pole
toroidal chamber тороидальная камера prstencová komora
torus тор(геометрическая фигура, напр. бублик, шина) torus, obloun
transliteration транслитерация přepis, transkripce
     

 

Exercises

 Exercise 1   Put in so,such or such a(an):

  1. •••  helical field can be generated by adding a toroidal and a poloidal magnetic fields.
  2. Magnetic fields are used for confinement because no solid material could withstand ••• extremely high temperature of the plasma.
  3. The tempereture of the plasma is ••• high that no solid material could withstand it.
  4. ••• alternative to the tokamak is the stellarator.    
  5. ••• toroidal electric current flows inside the plasma.
  6. The cost of fuel makes ••• minor cost component in the overall cost of nuclear power that the price of uranium has little effect on it.
  7. The cost of fuel is ••• lowly that the increase of the uranium price has little effect on the overall cost of nuclear power.

 Exercise 2   Choose an appropriate word from the table below and put it in the gap:

  1. A magnetic field is used in tokamaks in order …(1)… a plasma in the shape of a torus.
  2. Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas, in which a certain …(2)… of the particles are ionized.
  3. In a tokamak, the toroidal field …(3)… by electromagnets that surround the torus.
  4. The poloidal field is the result of a toroidal electric current that …(4)… inside the plasma.
  5. The tokamak is one of the most-researched candidates for producing …(5)… thermonuclear fusion power.
  6. Magnetic fields are used for confinement because no solid material could …(6)… the extremely high temperature of the plasma.
  7. The word tokamak is …(7)… of the Russian word токамак, which is an acronym.
  A B C
1 to restrict to confine to enclose
2 section piece portion
3 is produced is yielded is created
4 streams gushes flows
5 managed controlled directed
6 resist confront withstand
7 transliteration transcription rescript

Exercise 3   Make questions beginning with the words in brackets:

  1. This current is induced inside the plasma with a second set of electromagnets.  (What … with?)
  2. Achieving a stable plasma equilibrium requires a magnetic field that moves around the torus.  (What kind of a magnetic field … ?)
  3. Such a helical magnetic field can be generated by adding a toroidal field and a poloidal field.  (How … ?)
  4. An alternative to the tokamak is the stellarator.  (What … ?)
  5. Tokamaks were invented in the 1950s by Soviet physicists Igor Tamm and Andrei Sakharov.  (Who … by?)

In the end try a quiz So & Such (44)

And if you need to improve your pronunciation, just listen to native speakers at http://www.dailystep.com/content.asp?id=16 

It takes only few minutes.

Good luck!

 

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