The ViCTE Newsletter

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

 

Number 45                                                                                 August 2013

 Composed by Galina Vitkova

Editorial

Dear friend of Technical English,

 As mentioned many times the Passive Voice is widely used in English technical texts. That is why the actual issue of the ViCTE Newsletter is devoted to this topic. The topic was also discussed in  Number 19 – Passives VS. Actives / April 2010.

 There are two voices in English: the Active Voice and the Passive Voice.

The Active Voice is used to say what the subject does.

Example: THE BULLISH CHINESE AND INDIAN MARKETS (s u b j e c t) determineTHE WORLD ENERGY DEMAND (o b j e c t).

The Passive Voice is used to say what happens to the subject (in an Active Voice sentence),

Example: THE WORLD ENERGY DEMAND (s u b j e c t in this Passive Voice sentence being an object in the Active Voice sentence) is determined by THE BULLISH CHINESE AND INDIAN MARKETS(o b j e c t).

Active vs Passive

NOTICE – When we transform Active into Passive the subject from the Active sentence (THE BULLISH CHINESE AND INDIAN MARKETS) becomes the object in the Passive sentence. Moreover, “by” is put before this object. When it is not important or it is not known who or what causes the action, we omit “by + object” (see Exercise 3).

Example:

The Tolino Shine eReader is provided with a dictionary. (“by + object” is omitted)

Generally speaking

Passive is

BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 Just remind the Past Participle of regular verbs is formed by adding (e)d. Irregular Past Participles can be found, for instance, on the site .http://www.usingenglish.com/reference/irregular-verbs or Principal Parts of Irregular Verbs.

Passive can be used in all tenses except Perfect Continuous tense (see the table below)

TENSE Past Present Future
Simple

ACTIVE installed

PASSIVE was/were installed

ACTIVE install(s)

PASSIVE am/are/is installed

ACTIVE  will install

PASSIVE  will be installed

Continuous

ACTIVE   was/were installing

PASSIVE  was being/were being installed

ACTIVE   am/are/is installing

PASSIVE  am being/are being /is being iinstalled

ACTIVE   will be installing

Perfect

ACTIVE   had installed

PASSIVE  had been installed

ACTIVE   have/has installed

PASSIVE  have been/ has been installed

ACTIVE   will have installed

Perfect Continuous

ACTIVE   had been installing

ACTIVE   have been/has been installing

ACTIVE   will have been + “ing“

 IMPORTANT: When altering a tense we conjugate only BE keeping the PAST PARTICIPLE without any change. Look again:

the main verb – (to) install, the past participle – installed.

Simple Past I/He/She/ItWAS installed in an office.

We/You/They WERE installed in an office.

Simple Present I AM installed in an office.

He/She/It IS installed

We/You/They ARE installed ….

Simple Future

I/He/She/It/We/You/They WILL BE installed in an office.

Past Continuous I/He/She/It WAS BEING installed in an office.

We/You/They WERE BEING installed ….

Present Continuous I AM BEING installed in an office.

He/She/It IS BEING installed ….

We/You/They ARE BEING installed ….

Past Perfect I/He/She/It/We/You/They HAD BEEN installed in an office.
Present Perfect I HAVE BEEN installed in an office.

He/She/It HAS BEEN installed….

We/You/They HAVE BEEN installed ….

You canl find more details about the Passive Voice in  English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy (format PDF – free downloading)

Sentences in all following below exercises are based on the technical English texts Key trends of global electricity balance in 2012, Get to know: tolino shine eReader, Once more about Fukushima accidentLook up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabularies, i.e.  TrainTE Vocabulary,   Technical English Vocabulary – power engineering, Internet English Vocabulary.

Keys to exercises 1 to 5 are given in  Keys to Newsletters from Number 19.  

Technical English Exercises

Exercise 1 Complete the sentences using one of the verbs in the correct Passive from the list:

compose base observe export cancel restrict perform

  1. The text ▪▪▪ using excerpts from the Enerdata press release of 30 May 2013 in Grenoble.

  2. In Japan electricity production ▪▪▪ after the Fukushima accident in March 2011.

  3. The annual analysis of world energy demand ▪▪▪ on 2012 data for G20 countries.

  4. Among the G7 countries strong alterations in using gas and coal ▪▪▪ in the USA and in Europe.

  5. The surplus of US coal ▪▪▪ at very competitive prices,

  6. The control of the eReader functioning ▪▪▪ through a sensory screen.

  7. The growing share of renewable energies ▪▪▪ by the increased use of coal in the EU.

 Exercise 2 Transform Active Voice sentences into Passive Voice sentences:

Exemple:

ACTIVE High oil prices impact even Cina in 2011.

PASSIVE Even China was impacted by high oil prices in 2011.

  1. In 2011 China alone contributed to 80% of the world growth of electricity consumption.

  2. A sensory screen enables the control of the eReader functioning.

  3. Immediately after the accident at the Fukushima plant the management implemented measures to stabilize situation.

  4. The increase of the coal share for electricity production caused the growth of CO2 emissions in the G20 countries.

  5. Enerdata, an independent Research & Consulting firm, carried out this analysis.

  6. The Tolino Shine eBook reader provides a size of letters tuning.

  7. In 2011 high oil prices resulted in a decrease of oil demand in European countries, the USA and Japan.

Exercise 3 Rewrite the sentences below. Instead of using somebody/people/they write a passive sentence:

  1. Somebody composed the text using excerpts from the Enerdata press release of 30 May 2013 in Grenoble.

  2. They elaborated the analysis of the trends in energy demand, based on 2011 data for G20 countries.

  3. People observed strong alternations in using gas and coal in the USA and in Europe.

  4. People characterized the world energy demand.in 2011 by bullish growing Chinese and Indian markets.

  5. In the United Kingdom they increased the share of using coal for electricity production from 30% to 40%.

  6. They built the Tolino Shine eReader within a partnership among three Germany’s leading companies.

  7. People control the eReader functioning through a sensory screen,

Exercise 4 What do these words mean? Use it can be or it can´t be for explaining:

  1. unpredictable – it can´t be predicted

  2. consumable

  3. extendable

  4. uncomfortable

  5. downloadable

  6. searchable

  7. unexplainable

Exercise 5 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form, Present Simple or Past Simple, Active or Passive:

  1. Passive Voice (TO USE) widely in technical texts.

  2. The energy consumption growth in the G20 countries (TO SLOW DOWN) to 2% in 2011

  3. Developed countries (TO STRUGGLE) with stagnant economies, high oil prices, resulting in stable or decreasing energy consumption.

  4. China (TO COMFORT) its position as the highest energy consuming country in the world.

  5. In 2011 high oil prices (TO RESULT) in a decrease of oil demand in European countries, the USA and Japan.

  6. In Japan electricity production (TO RESTRICT) after the Fukushima accident in March2011.

  7. The Tolino Shine (TO BUILD) within a partnership among five Germany’s companies.

Recommended activities

Read the post Key trends of global electricity balance in 2012 carefully and loudly to practice pronunciation and revise vocabulary! If necessary, use TrainTE Vocabulary and Technical English Vocabulary – power engineering. Enjoy the post and write comments.

 Listen to ESL Listening Exercise: Past Tense for Beginners and improve your English pronunciation as much as possible.

 Study Passive Voice Reference and practice your writing skills by changing active sentences to passive sentences.

 GOOD  LUCK!

Voices Mosaic #68

Dear friend of Technical English,

If you are a technical student or an engineer and need to cultivate your professional English together with getting comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering. don´t hesitate

Subscribe to “Train Technical English.

It encourages you to become excellent at technical communication.

Click Entries RSS     OR     Подписаться письмом

T-Digit-Ffm (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The ViCTE Newsletter

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 44                                                                                 June 2013

Editorial

Dear friend of Technical English,

Recently a lot of eReaders have appeared. You may seek the complete survey of eBooks Readers that are sold momentarily at Check Out My eReader ReviewsIn my opinion the eReaders seem to be very suitable for building your own library of materials for studying Technical English (as well as for studying general English). Now you can find on the Internet enough textbooks or manuals in appropriate formats and download them free. For example, English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy in format PDF is offered for free downloading.

As contrasted with preceding issues of the ViCTE Newsletter this number contains only a technical text which is a guest post by Boris Kolesnikov “I am absorbing tolino shine eReader”. The author of the post has freshly got a new German eReader as a gift and now he is sharing his first experience with this device. Read the post carefully (and loudly!). Use if necessary a technical English dictionary Internet English Vocabulary. Enjoy the post and write comments.

As mentioned for many times Passives are widely used in technical texts. So, I would like to dedicate the next issue of the ViCTE Newsletter to this topic. To refresh some knowledge concerning the theme see Number 19 – Passives VS. Actives / April 2010.Now I want you, dear visitor, read again the post and detect all Passives in it. If you have any problems with looking for Passives, let me know what kind of problems you have.  Galina Vitkova

I am absorbing

tolino shine eReader

By Boris Kolesnikov

tolino shine

eReader

 TolinoReaderBoris

The Tolino Shine is a new eBook reader that is produced in Germany starting March 2013. The Tolino Shine was built within a partnership among Bertelsmann, Deutsche Telekom and Germany’s leading bookstore chains—Thalia, Weltbild, and Hugendubel.

Values of tolino shine eReader

  • An embedded system of front lighting enables reading at dark without any discomfort.
  • Due to implementation of eInk you can read a text on a HD screen without any troubles. Even bright daily sun light is unable to cause difficulties.
  • A sensory screen provides a simple control of eReader functioning.
  • You are able to use the eReader during up to 7 weeks without recharging a battery. It is a great feature when being on long lasting journey or holidays.
  • An embedded wireless local network WLAN ensures a blitz downloading new eBooks even without a computer.
  • With TelekomCloud you might retain eBooks using synchronisation.
  • Large capacity of internal memory (2 GB) makes possible to download into a library of tolino shine eReader up to 2000 eBooks.

Download of eBooks

After buying a tolino shine eReader you are able immediately to begin with building your own digital library of eBooks downloading them. You may use the structure of the library offered by the eReader or create your own structure, The eBools for downloading can be in the format PDF, pdf2txt/reflow or also in horizontal (landscape) format. A size of letters can be tuned too. It is possible to download up to 2000 eBooks into a library of tolino shine eReader with the list of their titles. The eBooks may be searched through the whole Internet with the help of WLAN and TelekomCloud. The eBooks might have the wireless access to the Internet via various facilities of synchronisation. The tolino shine eReader enables to access free up to 12000 Wi-Fi hotspots via Telekom in Germany..

T-Digit-Ffm

Control of the eReader functioning

The control is carried out through a sensory screen, which brings a great comfort and easy communication with the eReader when downloading or selecting eBooks or turning the pages leaves of an eBook. The embedded system of the integrated frontlight enables reading even at dark. Just click a suitable button that switches on or cuts out a spot lamp for reading. The control of the screen lighting intensity is involved as well.

Navigating across a site is provided. Searching eBooks in a library following various criterion is enabled. The tolino shine eReader is provided with a dictionary too.

 Comparing technical characteristics of toline shine eReader with other eReaders

tolino shine

Kindle Paperwhite

Bookeen HD FL

Price

99.99 EUR

129.- EUR

129.- EUR

Screen

6″ eInk Pearl HD
1024 x 758 pixels

6″ eInk Pearl HD
1024 x 758 pixels

6″ eInk Pearl HD
1024 x 758 pixels

Touchscreen

infrared

capacitive

capacitive

Integrated frontlight

light guide

light guide

light guide

Processor / Memory

800 MHz/
256 MB RAM

800 MHz/
256 MB RAM

800 MHz/
128 MB RAM

Internal memory

4 GB –
2 GB

2 GB –
1,25 GB

2 GB

SD Card

up to 32 GB

any SD card

up to 32 GB

Weight

183 g

213 g

192 g

Battery

1500 mAh

1450 mAh

1600 mAh

Operating system

Android

Linux

Linux

Supporting ePub
and Adobe DRM

yes

no

yes

Abbreviations

eReader – e-Book reader
eInk – electronic ink
HD screen – high density screen
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network
Wi- Fi – Wireless Fidelity
SD Card – Security Digital Card
Adobe DRM – Adobe Digital Rights Management
ePub – format that is used for eBooks

PS:  

  1. The Russian version of this post titled “Осваиваю tolino shine eReader“ is published at the blog Technical  English Remarks. 
  2. The Internet English Vocabulary (English – Russian – Czech) facilitates understanding this technical text if necessary,

Reference

http://www.weltbild.de/1/geraetevergleich/ebookreadervergleich.html

pták-hnízdo

The ViCTE Newsletter

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 43                                                                                 May 2013

Composed by Galina Vitkova

Editorial

In technical texts we often encounter prepositions AT, IN, ON as prepositions of place and time. General considerations about these prepositions you may find in many grammar books, e.g. in English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy, which is one of the best English Grammar book. You can download this book from the site http://www.alleng.ru/d/engl_en/eng010.htm). Moreover, this topic has recently been discussed at the blog Technical English Remarks in the post AT / IN / ON – Какой предлог выбрать? There you retrieve some useful and captivating examples.  Just follow a brief overlook of these prepositions usage adown.

 AT, IN, ON as prepositions of time

In general we use AT for time of day, e.g. at five o´clock / at midnight;
We use ON for days and dates, e.g.: on Tuesday / Tuesdays / on 2 May 2013;
We use IN saying about longer periods, e.g. in the Middle Ages / in the 21 century.
It is frequently used on time and in time.  ON time means punctually (i.e. at the time as it was planned, not late). IN time means soon enough.  Examples:  

Company ТЕРСО managed to put into run the cooling system of Unit 1 on time. (as it was planned) / The European Unie approved the Implementing Regulation in time. (i.e. soon enough to prevent expanding intoxicated products)

 See more interesting details about these prepositions in English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy .

AT, IN, ON as prepositions of place

We use IN when speak about placement inside something (inside a limited space), e.g.: in your city / in your hand / in Japan / in the field of renewable energy etc.
AT is used in the following cases (see examples): at the door / at the window /at the bus-stop / at the end of the generator hall / at a power plant.
 ON is used when speaking about placement on a surface: on the ceiling of a generator hall / on the table of the generator hall manager.

Find more fascinating details and examples about these prepositions in English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy .

Now do Exercise 1 practising usage of prepositions AT IN ON in technical texts. The sentences of this exercise are excerpted from the technical text Once more about Fukushima accident at the blog Why Technical English .Your task is to put AT IN ON into appropiate gaps using above mentioned recommendations.

Exercise 3 is about the Simple Past tense As it was meant for several times this tense is widely used in technical texts. So it is favourable to revise this topic again and again. Brush up on the rules concerning the topic in Past Tenses Review and do the exercise after it.
Exercise 2 is devoted to Synonyms that enrich you vocabulary and improve your communication skills.

Keys to exercises 1 to 3 you find in  Keys to Newsletters from Number 19.   Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e.  TrainTE Vocabulary and in  Technical English Vocabulary – power engineering.

Technical English Exercises

Exercise 1   Put appropriate prepositions (AT, IN, ON) into gaps:

  1. Two years ago, ■■■ 11 March 2011, ■■■ Japan the strongest earthquake accompanying by tsunami happened.

  2. Te tsunami caused the accident ■■■ the Nuclear Power Plant Fukushima-1.(or Fukushima Daiichi)

  3. The NPP Fukushima-1 is located near Okum city ■■■Fukushima prefecture.

  4. The NPP was built ■■■ 1960–1970 and is operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO).

  5. The accident ■■■ the NPP Fukushima-1 occurred practically immediately after the earthquake and tsunami.

  6. Radioactive substances were revealed ■■■drinking water and food not only ■■■ Fukushima prefecture, but ■■■ the other regions of Japan, too.

  7. ■■■ December 2011 cool shutdown of reactors was completed

  8. ■■■18 March 2013 ■■■ the evening a new accident caused by failure of cooling systems of spent nuclear fuel pools ■■■Units 1, 3, 4 took place.

  9. ■■■19 March the company ТЕРСО managed to put into run the cooling system of Unit 1.

  10. Following the accident ■■■ the Fukushima NPP ■■■ 11 March 2011, the European Unie approved the Implementing Regulation ■■■ 26 October 2012.

 Exercise 2   Find SYNONYMS in the text below for Proposed expressions:

Some details about the Fukushima accident

(adapted from http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html)

Paragraph 1

There are three basic safety functions of the IAEA safety standards: prevention of criticality, removal of decay heat and mitigation of radioactive releases. So immediately after the accident at the Fukushima plant measures to bring the nuclear reactors and the spent fuel pools to a stable cooling condition and to mitigate radioactive releases were implemented.

Paragraph 2

On 13 May the preparatory work on the installation of a cover for the reactor building of Unit 1 was commenced. The reactor building cover should be an emergency measure to prevent the dispersion of radioactive substances

Paragraph 3

In Units 1, 2 and 3 fresh water was continuously injected both via the feed water system lines and the fire-fighting unit lines into the reactor pressure vessel. So temperatures and pressures in the vessels remained stable.

Paragraph 4

Stagnant water with high level of radioactivity in the basement of the turbine buildings of Units 1 and 3 was transferred to the radioactive waste treatment facility, Stagnant water in the basement of the turbine building of Unit 6 was transferred to a temporary storage tank. Countermeasures against the outflow of water to the sea and to prevent and minimize the dispersion of radionuclides in water were put in place.

No of a paragraph

Proposed expressions

Expressions in the given text you found

Paragraph 1

disposal
radioactive substances
efforts
minimize
■■■
■■■
■■■
■■■

Paragraph 2

preparatory action

was begun

extraordinary measure

■■■

■■■

■■■

Paragraph 3

uninterruptedly

kept

■■■

■■■

Paragraph 4

highly radioactive

ancillary

expanding

were put into operation

■■■

■■■

■■■

■■■

 

Exercise 3   Use the Simple Past Tense for the verbs in brackets at the end of each sentence:

  1. Two years ago, on 11 March 2011, in Japan the strongest earthquake accompanying by tsunami ■■■. (HAPPEN)
  2. The tsunami ■■■ the accident at the Nuclear Power Plant Fukushima-1. (CAUSE)
  3. The accident at the NPP Fukushima-1 ■■■ immediately after the earthquake and tsunami.  (OCCUR)
  4. On 18 March 2013 in the evening a new accident caused by failure of cooling systems of spent nuclear fuel pools of Units 1, 3, 4 ■■■. (TAKE PLACE)
  5. On 19 March the company ТЕРСО ■■■ to put into run the cooling system of Unit 1. (MANAGE)
  6. Following the accident at the Fukushima NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Unie ■■■ the Implementing Regulation on 26 October 2012. (APPROVE)

Abbreviations:

IAEA – International Atomic Energy Agency

ТЕРСО – Tokyo Electric Power Company

NPP – Nuclear Power Plant

 

Recommended activities

Practise prepositions AT, IN, ON doing exercise „In on at exercise on prepositions!“ on the site http://www.easypacelearning.com/exercises/626-in-on-at-exercise-on-prepositions-learning-english.

Listen to ESL Listening Exercise: Past Tense for Beginners and improve your English pronunciation in such a manner.

 Revise tense – definition and examples of grammatical tense in English and do exercises English Past Simple Tense – Test 07,  English Past Simple Tense – Test 08 and English Past Simple Tense – Test 09.

 GOOD  LUCK!

Dear friend of Technical English,

If you are a technical student or technician and need to cultivate your professional English together with getting comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering. don´t hesitate

Subscribe to “Train Technical English.

It encourages you to become excellent at technical communications.

Click Entries RSS     OR     Подписаться письмом

The ViCTE Newsletter

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 42                                                                                 February 2013

 Composed by Galina Vitkova

 Editorial

Dear friend of Technical English,

With consideration for the importance of word order when writing or speaking English and taking into account the interest of learners to the topic, this ViCTE Newsletter deals mainly with building English sentences keeping word order.. Two different approaches are used for this purpose. The first one is very simple. All words of each sentence are given in a shuffle sequence. Your task is to build a sentence using given words inline with the appropriate rules (for instance, see ViCTE Newsletter Number 15 – SVOMPT (Word Order) / November 2009, ViCTE Newsletter Number 18 – Use RULE 1-2-3 for questions / March 2010) or linguapress.com/grammar/w…. The other approach keeps the correct word order of an original sentence, but demands to add some missing words, mostly prepositions, and / or to change the form of several words (putting a verb, for example, into a proper tense instead of the infinitive etc.). This approach demands more in-depth knowledge of English and provides more sophisticated practice. Visit Sentence Building – Pre-Intermediate Level Tests and try some of the tests. All sentences (the same in both exercises) are taken from the short technical text titled Hydropower in Russia provided below.

English: Stud screws washers and bolts The wel...

So, there are three exercises in this newsletter:

Exercise 1  contains the aforementioned technical text Hydropower in Russia where some words and expressions are missed. Your task is to choose a proper expression from offered proposals and put it in a proper gap. Pay special attention to prepositions used in the expression. You will need them in the two following exercises. The exercise is useful for enriching your professional vocabulary, too.

In Exercise 2  you need to build sentences putting the given words in the correct word order.

Exercise 3  is about building English sentences in compliance with Sentence Building – Pre-Intermediate Level Tests

Keys to exercises you find in Keys to Newsletters from Number 19.

 Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e. TrainTE Vocabulary and in Technical English Vocabulary – power engineering.

Technical English Exercises

Exercise 1  Put verbs in the table below into an appropriate place:

Hydropower in Russia

■ hydro power plants with capacities of over ■ for hydropower production  for the hydro potential  is home to ■  amounted to ■  economically feasible  installed capacity of ■ the most recent dam projects ■ hydroelectric producer ■ signed a cooperation agreement to expand

 

Russia has 102 …(1)… 100 MW, making it the fifth in the world …(2)…. It is also the second in the world …(3)…, yet only 20% of this potential is developed. Russia …(4)… 9% of the world hydro resources, mostly in Siberia and the country far east. At the end of 2005, the generating capacity from hydroenergetic sources in Russia …(5)… 45,700 MW, and an additional 5,648 MW was under construction. The World Energy Council believes that Russia has much potential for using its hydro resources, with theoretical potential of about 2,295 TWh/year, with 852 TWh being …(6)….

The largest dams in Russia are the Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam, which has an …(7)… 6,400 MW; the Krasnoyarsk Dam (6,000 MW); the Bratsk Dam (4,500 MW); the Ust-Ilimsk (4,320 MW). Some of …(8)… are the Bureya Dam (2010 MW) and the Irganai Dam (800 MW). Several dams, including the Boguchany Dam (1920 MW), are currently under construction. Rusenergo is the largest hydroelectric company in Russia and the second largest …(9)… in the world. In October 2010 the China Yangtze Power, the largest hydropower corporation in China, and the EuroSibEnergo, a Russian energy company, …10)… hydroelectric energy production in Russia and export energy to China northern territories. The West Siberian Generating Company has plans to start construction of eight mini-hydro power plants in the Altai region before 2015.

Exercise 2   Build sentences putting the words given below into the correct word order:

  1. 102 – Russia – of – 100 MW – with – hydro – has – over – plants – capacities – power.
  2. of – to – is – hytro – , mostly – in – the – Siberia – 2. 9% – world – home – resources – Russia
  3. Russia – generating – from – 45,700 – amounted – MW – to – The – in – capacity – sources – hydroenergetic.
  4. believes – much – Energy – World – resources – its – Council – for – hydro – potential – has – Russia – that – The – using
  5. October – cooperation – and – 2010 – In – agreement – a – EuroSibEnergo – signed – China Yangtze Power – Russiant.
  6. ill – to – expand – territories – Russia – northern – exporting – for – to – production – China – agreement – According – the – hydroelectric – it – energy.
  7. including – Boguchany Dam – Several – dams, – currently – , are – under – construction – the – (1920 MW).

Exercise 3  Build sentences based on the given words making necessary adjustments:

  1. Russia¨/ have / 102 / hydro power plants / capacities / 100 MW.
  2. Russia / be / home / 9% / world hydro resources, / mostly / Siberia.
  3. / generating capacity / hydroenergetic sources / Russia / amounted / 45,700 MW.
  4. / World Energy Council / believe / Russia / have / much potential / using / hydro resources.
  5. / October 2010 / China Yangtze Power / Russian EuroSibEnergo / sign / cooperation agreement.
  6. / agreement / Russia / expand / hydroelectric energy production / exporting it / China northern territories.
  7. Several dams, / the Boguchany Dam (1920 MW), / be / currently / construction. 

Recommended activities

Irregular words (especially its Past form) is widely used in Technical English, in technical texts. The more irregular verbs you know, the better, even brighter your English is. That is a reason why I recommend you to try a short quiz,containing 10 irregular verbs, which everybody should remember.

GOOD  lUCK !

Dear friend of Technical English,

If you are a technical student or an engineer and need to improve your professional English and at the same time get basic comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering. don´t hesitate

Subscribe to “Train Technical English.

It encourages you to become exellent at technical communication.

Cllick Entries RSS     OR     Подписаться письмом  

on the right sidebar

Happy New Year

Sob2013

   I look forward to helping you more

improve your Technical English this year.

 

Galina Vitkova

The ViCTE Newsletter

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 41                                                                                 October 2012

Composed by Galina Vitkova

Editorial

Dear friend of Technical English!

For many English learners the tenses are especially challenging because their native language does not focus on the time aspect of tenses that is so prevalent in English.

Drop a look again at the table reviewing all English tenses, e.g. in Simple tenses – ViCTE Newsletter Number 36 / January 2012 or Conjugate verbs, with paying the special attention to Simple tenses.

Let us just remind:

Simple Present Tense is used to describe what we do every day, i.e. permanent or long-lasting situations, regular habits and daily routines, facts, feelings etc. (see more details and examples in reading comprehension about daily routines). Be sure about your remembering the material and check your understanding with this short quiz. Choose the correct word or phrase to complete the question. There are 10 questions to this quiz. Try to use only 30 seconds per question.

Past Simple Tense. This tense is used when something begins and ends in the past. The Past Tense Regular Verb Pronunciation is reminded in the past forms of regular verbs. Irregular verbs, which should be learned by heart, are provided in an irregular verb sheet. Check your understanding the tense with the short quiz. There are 10 questions to this quiz, too.

Remember that in the Simple Present and Simple Past auxiliary verbs are used in the question and negative, but not in the positive form.

Future There are two basic future tenses used in English (and in Technical English naturally, too) to describe things that happen in the future: the future with ‘will’ and the future with ‘going to’. The Simple Future Tense with ‘will’, which was discussed in Refine your Future Simple – ViCTE Newsletter Number 40 / July 2012, is used for predictions and for promises or to talk about an event in the future that you have just decided to do. The future with ‘going to’ is used to express events you have already planned in the future and your intentions for the future. We have not discussed this case yet, but we are going to do that in the near future.

Future.Tense

Future.Tense (Photo credit: Lay-Luh)

When making decision about a proper tense to use,  you may drop a look at Conjugate verbs again.

The following below exercises 1 and 2 are based on the technical text Energy policy of Germany after Fukushima at the blog Why Technical English.

In Exercise 1your task is to decide which simple tense is appropriate for each sentence and put an infinitive given at the end of the sentence into a correct tense. Exercise 2is about word order in the positive (or affirmative) form of simple tenses. Provided words should be ordered in compliance with the rule SVOMPT (see, for instance, Number 15 – SVOMPT (Word Order) / November 2009 ).

When doing exercises, check your solutions in Keys to Newsletters from Number 19. Technical terms and expressions, possible abbreviations connected with the mentioned text could be found in the enclosed technical English vocabulary, i.e. TrainTE Vocabulary.

PS: Before doing exercises read loudly the technical text Energy policy of Germany after Fukushima at least twice. It will definitely contribute to your better English understanding and pronunciation.

Technical English Exercises

Verbs Territory

Verbs Territory (Photo credit: Ecstatic Mark)

Exercise 1  Put infinitives in brackets into an appropriate Simple tense:

  1. Legislative changes following the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan in 2011 °°° the nuclear extension. (TO STOP)
  2. The German Energy Agency °°° a new study examining the consequences of the German energy policy shift. (TO PRESENT)
  3. The Agency °°° that electricity prices °°° until 2050 and conventional power plants °°° needed to a large extent to ensure the security of supply and balance. (TO PREDICT, TO RISE, TO BE)
  4. When preparing the study the Agency °°° with the Aachen University. (TO COOPERATE)
  5. By 2050 efficient gas and coal-fired power plants °°° roughly 60% of secure electricity supply, whereas renewable power plants deliver 24%. (TO PROVIDE, TO DELIVER)
  6. As of 2020 it °°° to situations in which the renewable power production exceeds the demand. (TO COME)
  7. The Agency °°° a European capacity market to encourage and stimulate investments in power plants that °°° secure capacities. (TO PROPOSE, TO PROVIDE)

Exercise 2   Make sentences putting words below into the correct word order:

  1. ambitious – Before – targets – had – Germany – energy – Fukushima-.
  2. the – an – Energy Concept 2010 – times of – approved – nuclear – plants – power – extension of – operating – German – the 17 – The -.
  3. The – and – key – comprised – climate – energy – elements – November 2010 – four – of 26 -.
  4. present – the – in – amounts – 29 GW – of PV – total – At – to – Germany – capacity – plants – installed -..
  5. study – capacity – installed – In – Germany – amount – to – total – according to the – 240 GW in – power – in – the – will – 2050 -,
  6. 37% – capacity – will – 2010 – compared – with – The – by – conventional – decrease – only -.
  7. complete – EEG – Agency – demands – The – the – of – overhaul – a -.
  8. German – fixed – EEG – granting – The – the – feed-in – by – tariffs – grids – into the – renewable – energy – promotes – input of -.

In conclusion I advise you to regularly pay attention to improving your pronunciation. Visit Tips for Improving Your Pronunciation, practise pronunciation and your English will be just brighter.

G O O D    L U C K!

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The ViCTE Newsletter  

Helps professionals keep and improve their English through the Internet since February 2009: Study Technical English and get information about new technologies.

Number 40                                                                                 July 2012

Composed by Galina Vitkova

 

Editorial

 
Even if the Future Simple tense is not a tense that is so widely applied in technical texts, it is worth revising and practicing (see again e.g. the review Simple tenses – ViCTE Newsletter Number 36 / January 2012 or Conjugate verbs).

The Future Simple tense is used to indicate the future. It is composed of two parts: will/shall + infinitive without ‘to’ (sometimes called base verb). Will and shall are often contracted to ‘ll.

Just remind ‘will’ is used with all persons. ‘Shall’ can be used instead of ‘will’ with I/we. In modern English, particularly in American English, ‘shall’ with a future reference is rarely used.

‘Shall’ is used to make offers, ask for advices or suggestions, etc. (mainly in British English)
For instance:  Shall I close the door?    Shall I study English?

‘Shall’ is also used as an imperative in formal or legal written statements:
For instance: The Chairman shall be present at the Company’s general meetings.   The accused shall be present during the trial.

Following the topic the Newsletter contains two exercises and recommended tests. Exercise 1 represents the technical text in which the author predicts the future of social media. Your task is to choose a proper combination of a verb with context from the given box and put it in a right place. The combination may be complicates a little your task, but it weighs in learning new words. If you like to work more on your vocabulary, study comprehensive advices in How To Increase Your Vocabulary (superdoodadsblog.wordpress.com).

In Exercise 2 you should place verbs from the brackets at the end of each sentence in a proper gap. Do not forget to use a correct form of a verb. 

Keys to exercises (but do the exercises firstly!) you find as always in Keys to Internet English.

Look up the unknown technical terms, if necessary, in the technical English vocabulary, i.e. Internet English VocabularyD o   y o u r   b e s t !

Technical English Exercises

 

Exercise 1   Put appropriate expressionss from the box below into gaps:

Social Media examiner

By Carla Swing @CarlaDewing

http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/author/carla-dewing/

we will see    –    will have to transcend    –    there will be urgency    –    as it crosses    –         will be required to have    –    become more complex    –    will become integral    –    how will he or she be able    –    their job becomes    –    when they arise    –    it will be short-sighted

 

In 2011 we saw a trend toward multifaceted social marketing positions, or people within companies who are expected to have “layered” expertise in social media. Content marketers ▪▪▪ (1) ▪▪▪ basic sales, and work within the rapidly expanding technology field.

In 2012 ▪▪▪ (2) ▪▪▪ these positions solidified, as social marketers working online branch out and become involved in the coding/tech world as well.

These positions ▪▪▪ (3) ▪▪▪ to any social marketing campaign, as singular jobs ▪▪▪ (4) ▪▪▪ transforming people into media specialists.

One individual must be able to blog, market, work on a multitude of platforms, work within the tech sphere and perform high-level SEO tasks. Otherwise, ▪▪▪ (5) ▪▪▪ to spot social opportunities ▪▪▪ (6) ▪▪▪?

These media specialists ▪▪▪ (7) ▪▪▪ a 360-degree view of social media, as ▪▪▪ (8) ▪▪▪ more demanding and competitive. I also feel that ▪▪▪ (9) ▪▪▪ to perfect mobile technology and marketing, ▪▪▪ (10) ▪▪▪ from the virtual realm into the physical world.

In 2012, it ▪▪▪ (11▪▪▪ for businesses to overlook the benefits of having a media specialist on their team! 

Exercise 2   Use a proper Future Simple form of a main verb in brackets and put it in a right place:

  1. Content marketers ▪▪▪ to transcend basic sales, and work within the rapidly expanding technology field.   (TO HAVE)
  2. In 2012 we ▪▪▪ these positions solidified, as social marketers working online branch out and become involved in the coding/tech world as well.   (TO SEE)
  3. These positions ▪▪▪ integral to any social marketing campaign.   (TO BECOME)
  4. Otherwise, how ▪▪▪ he or she ▪▪▪ to spot social opportunities when they ▪▪▪?   (TO BE ABLE, TO ARISE)
  5. These media specialists ▪▪▪ to have a 360-degree view of social media.   (TO BE REQUIRED
 

Below recommended tests seem to be rather easy. Nevertheless, keep carefulness! Each test comprises 10 questions. You should choose the best answer to the question. Do all seven tests from English Future Simple Tense. After completing, do not forget to review the questions and your answers.

G O O D   L U C K !

Dear visitor,

Do you need to improve your professional English?

Would you like to gain comprehensive information about the Internet and Web, computers, power engineering?

 Subscribe to the ViCTE Newsletter on this blog “Train Technical English.

It encourages you to become excellent at technical communication.

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